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Study of the hondô (kyakuden, hôjô) of Rinzai Zen Sect Buddhist Temples in Kyôto, in the Early Modern Age (1) Typical Reconstruction Plans

July 24th, 2007 Comments off
ANTARIKSA and Susumu HYUGA


Résumé
In the early part of the modern age, during Keichô 1 (1596)~Enpô 9 (1681) the number of Rinzai zen sect tacchûs (memorial cloisters) in Kyôto increased. The sanctuary and veranda of several memorial cloisters were reformed. For example, the front side remodeled to accommodate placement of the carved statue of the cloister founder. In such case, the rear of the sanctuary expanded out, the front side extended out, and the composition of innermost sanctuary was also changed. Other changes are also seen, for example, the floors of veranda surrounding the building changed from wooden floor boards to tatami mats.
On the basis of reconstruction, this study will attempt to clarify the development and changes in the typical plans of memorial cloisters, during the early part of modern age. This study was based on material collected in Kyôtofu no kinsei shaji kenchiku kinkyû chôsa hôkokusho (Surveyed reports of the modern ages temples and shrines in Kyôto prefecture), Jûyô bunkazai shuri kôji hôkokusho (Repairing and reconstruction reports of the important cultural properties), Tôfuku-ji mishitei shuyô kenzôbutsu chôsa hôkokusho (Surveyed reports of Tôfuku-ji memorial cliosters, as designated by the Ministry of Education), other historical records and field research. From these reference more than 38 temples of the early modern age built around Keichô 1 (1596)~Enpô 9 (1681) were selected. From these, it is possible to deduce the reasons for change and trace the development of plans.
Based on reconstruction plans of several memorial cloisters that were built in the early part of the modern age, it is clear that the basic composition of sanctuaries in the early modern age were similar to the late medieval age sanctuary. The composition of the innermost sanctuary consists of shinzen (front of the Buddhist altar), butsudan (Buddhist altar) and minzô (sleeping chamber). Later, the composition changed to accommodate placement of the carved statue of the cloister founder and the ihaidan (the altar to lay the ancestral tablets of the parishioners) set. The preference for a reformed sanctuary increased greatly from the early modern age, around Keichô 1 (1596) up to the mid-early modern age, around Syôhô 5 (1648). Therefore, all memorial cloisters which had been built in the late medieval and early modern ages were reformed at the sanctuary in accordance with the preferences of their contemporaries.
Changes and development of the veranda of some memorial cloisters were also carried out in the early modern age. The employment of a 1 ken wide-veranda that was placed on the left and right sides rather than at the rear of the building appeared from the early modern age. With remodeling in the mid-modern age, the width of that veranda became 1.5 ken. Furthermore, most of the saya no ma were remnants of the wide-veranda. The original floor of wooden boards was changed later to tatami mats. The reason for the change was to have the veranda function as a rest room during religious services. Based on the arrangement of veranda, it is evident that the wide-veranda that was placed at left or right sides of the building is related to the genkan (main entrance) and the kuri (temple kitchen). This veranda has a specific circulation function.


Antariksa and Susumu Hyuga, 1995, Study of the hondô (kyakuden, hôjô) of Rinzai Zen Sect Buddhist Temples in Kyôto, in the Early Modern Age (1) –Typical Reconstruction Plans–. Memoirs of the Faculty of Engineering and Design Kyôto Institute of Technology, Vol. 43 (March). pp. 121-140. (in Japanese).
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STUDY OF THE HONDÔ (KYAKUDEN, HÔJÔ) OF RINZAI ZEN SECT BUDDHIST TEMPLES IN KYÔTO, IN THE MID-MODERN AGE Typical reconstruction plans

July 24th, 2007 Comments off
Antariksa*


This study intends to clarify the development and change of types of plans, during the mid-modern age (Genroku 6 [1693]~Kansei 9 [1797]), according to reconstruction plans. From these, it is possible to dedicate the reason for changes and trace the development of the plans. In the mid-modern age, the plans of most memorial cloisters have similar development patterns to those of the early modern age (Keichô 1 [1596]~Enpô 9 [1681]). For instance, part of veranda, on three side of the building, was renovated and changed to saya no ma. The employment of 1.5 ken veranda also appeared on the left, right and front side of the building. Moreover, at some memorial cloisters, in order to have place for the carved statue of the cloister founder, the front of the sanctuary was reformed.

Keywords: Mid-modern age, Rinzai Zen sect, reconstruction, development and changes, plan, memorial cloisters

* Graduate Student, Graduate School of Architecture and Design, Kyôto Institute of Technology, M.Eng.

Antariksa, 1996, Study of the hondô (kyakuden, hôjô) of Rinzai Zen Sect Buddhist Temples in Kyôto, in the Mid-Modern Age (2) –Typical Reconstruction Plans– Journal of Architecture, Planning and Environmental Engineering (Transactions of AIJ), No. 484., June, pp. 239-249. ISSN: 1340-4210.
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STUDY OF THE HONDÔ (KYAKUDEN, HÔJÔ) OF RINZAI ZEN SECT BUDDHIST TEMPLES IN KYÔTO, IN THE LATE MODERN AGE Typical reconstruction plans

July 24th, 2007 Comments off
Antariksa*

This study will attempt to clarify the development and changes of types of plans on the resultant reconstruction. From these, it is possible to deduce the reasons for changes and trace the development of the plans. Most of the memorial cloisters built in the late modern age, from Bunka 4 [1807] to Kaei 7 [1854], show the same development of sanctuaries and verandas as those of the mid-modern age (Genroku 6 [1693]~Kansei 9 [1797]). For example, the floors of veranda on three sides of some buildings were changed from wooden boards to tatami mats, transforming the function of veranda to that of saya no ma. The employment of 1.5 ken veranda on the left and right sides of the building is also seen. In other cases, the front of the innermost sanctuary of some memorial cloisters were remodeled for placement of the carved statue of the cloister founder. Also in this period, some memorial cloisters had the rear of the sanctuary expanded out.


* Graduate Student, Graduate School of Architecture and Design, Kyôto Institute of Technology, M.Eng.

Antariksa, 1996, Study of the hondô (kyakuden, hôjô) of Rinzai Zen Sect Buddhist Temples in Kyôto, in the Late Modern Age (3) –Typical Reconstruction Plans–. Journal of Architecture, Planning and Environmental Engineering (Transactions of AIJ), No. 485., July, pp. 237-248. ISSN: 1340-4210.
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KOMPLEKS RATU BOKO, BUKAN CANDI? Penelusuran Fungsi Bangunan Situs Ratu Boko

July 24th, 2007 Comments off
Hari paraton*, Galih W. Pangarsa** dan Antariksa***


ABSTRAK

Studi ini bermaksud mencari persamaan dan perbedaan antara Situs Ratu Boko dengan candi. Sampai sekarang belum dapat dipastikan apakah situs tersebut merupakan candi, kraton,benteng, vihara, atau bangunan yang lain. Variabel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah tata ruang, tata letak dan orientasi; kaki, tubuh dan atap; ornamen serta struktur bangunan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Situs Ratu Boko tidak mempunyai kesamaan dengan candi-candi Jawa. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa Ratu Boko bukan candi.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to find out the similarities and differences between Ratu Boko Sites and temple. Until now, we can’t make sure yet whether Ratu Boko Sites is temple, palace, bastion, “vihara” or other building. The variables that is used in this research are ground plan, land use, and view. The results of research refer that Ratu Boko Sites haven’t any similarity with Javanese temple. In conclusion, its seems to us that Ratu Boko could not be identified as a temple.


* Hari Paraton, Alumni Jurusan Arsitektur Fakultas Teknik Universitas Brawijaya
** Dr. Ir. Galih W. Pangarsa, DEA., Dosen Jurusan Arsitektur Fakultas Teknik Universitas Brawijaya
*** Ir. Antariksa, Meng., PhD., Dosen Jurusan Arsitektur Fakultas Teknik Universitas Brawijaya


Hari Paraton, Galih W. Pangarsa, Antariksa, 1997, Kompleks Ratu Boko, Bukan Candi? Penelusuran Fungsi Bangunan Situs Ratu Boko, JURNAL TEKNIK, Fakultas Teknik Universitas Brawijaya, Volume IV No.9, Desember. hal. 23-28. ISSN: 1410-4121.
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PENELUSURAN PERKEMBANGAN TIPOLOGIS ARSITEKTUR PERUMAHAN PERDESAAN TROWULAN

July 24th, 2007 Comments off
Ema Yunita*, Galih W. Pangarsa**, Antariksa***


ABSTRAK

Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengenal perkembangan tipologis arsitektur perumahan perdesaan Trowulan di Mojokerto. Dengan mengambil sampel rumah menurut tahun pendiriannya dan acuan awal perumahan masa Majapahit, diharapkan akan diperoleh karakter khas perumahan perdesaan Trowulan yang dapat dikembangkan lebih lanjut di kemudian hari. Fokus studi diarahakan untuk mengenali karakter dasar yang diamati dari tata ruang luar, tata ruang dalam, dan pola fisik bangunan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pola fisik bangunan adalah unsur yang paling banyak berubah, tetapi secara prinsip tata ruang luar dan tata ruang dalam tidak banyak berubah.


ABSTRACT

This research is done in order to recognize the typological development of the rural housing architecture in Trowulan Mojokerto. Through taking some sample of houses based on its period and refering to the design of the Majapahit housing architecture, this study has been focused to recognize the basic characters of rural housing architecture in Trowulan i.e. land use, ground plan, the physical building design, the structure and its elements. The result refers that there are more change and variety on the physical buyilding design than on the spatial pattern.


* Ema Yunita, Alumni Jurusan Arsitektur Fakultas Teknik Universitas Brawijaya
** Dr. Ir. Galih W. Pangarsa, DEA., Dosen Jurusan Arsitektur Fakultas Teknik Universitas Brawijaya
*** Ir. Antariksa, Meng., PhD., Dosen Jurusan Arsitektur Fakultas Teknik Universitas Brawijaya


Ema Yunita, Galih W. Pangarsa, Antariksa, 1998, Penelusuran Perkembangan Tipologis Arsitektur Perumahan Perdesaan Trowulan, JURNAL TEKNIK, Fakultas Teknik Universitas Brawijaya, Volume V No.2, Agustus, hal. 11-26. . ISSN: 1410-4121.
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Student Participation in Architectural Conservation: Using Educational Processes to Understand Cultural Heritage

July 24th, 2007 Comments off
Antariksa



Abstract
Student are taught to be ‘numerate’ and ‘literate’ and the read books on conservation: but they are not taught to understand that which they see.
Given this fact, this study, which is intended as an introduction to sources on the history of architectural conservation, has been found to be highly useful in both establishing terminology and discussing the concepts and ethics of conservation. It focuses on the problem of education programs for students andincludes a series of lectures on conserving monuments or sites, local government policies, and cultural properties’ regulations within specific cases. The students work in historic sites, choosing specific cases or monuments, compiling the data and analysing to find the solution, finishing by making a report.
When visual appreciation and first hand experience play a decisive role in education, it is essential to keep alive the evidence of different periods and what was achieved within them. The survival of this evidence will be assured only if the need to protect it is understood by as many people as posible, particularly the students, who will be its future guardians. Today’s students will be tomorrow’s citizen: if they leave their own cities a little better than they found them, they will have fullfiled their duty to posterity. The challenge for us is to do our duty by them.
The final result will be the perfectly conserved historic monuments or sites that can be used as an educational setting for the general public and their own cultural identity with in the framework of local government, cultural properties, architects and institution academia.


Antariksa, 1999, Student Participation in Architectural Conservation: Using Educational Processes to Understand Cultural Heritage, Centre for Australian-Asia Studies Research Paper Heritage in Asia Series 99-1-H, Deakin University, pp. 1-32, ISBN: 0 7300 2509.
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STUDY ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE OF RINZAI ZEN SECT BUDDHIST MONASTERIES IN KYÔTO

July 24th, 2007 Comments off
Antariksa
Lecturer Department of Architecture Faculty of Engineering – Brawijaya University


ABSTRACT

In the middle of the 14th century, the Five Temples or Five Mountains (Gozan) of Rinzai Zen sect were developed rapidly in the city of Kyôto. The ranking system of officially sponsored by Zen Buddhist monasteries were created by the Kamakura and Muromachi government. The Gozan system originally included three monasteries in Kyôto and three in Kamakura, but immediately spread to five monasteries in several cities. While the two great monasteries, are not members of the Gozan group, which belonged to the Rinka group of Rinzai Zen sect temples. The system, which corresponds to a Chinese hierarchical model, was established in Japan during the Kamakura period.
The purpose of this study is to attempt to clarify the history and architecture of Rinzai Zen sect Buddhist monastery. The central functioning building of the Zen Buddhist monastery reflects the repetition, consistency, persistence, and order of the monastic ritual.

Keywords: Five Temple, Zen Buddhist, monastery, Rinzai Zen


Antariksa, 2000, Study on the History and Architecture of the Rinzai Zen Sect Buddhist Monasteries in Kyoto, Jurnal Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur, Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, Universitas Kristen Petra, Vol. 28, No. 1, Juli, hlm, 44-53. ISSN: 0126-219X.
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THE TYPES OF PLANS AND INTERIOR DESIGN AT MEMORIAL CLOISTERS OF DAITOKU-JI AND MYÔSHIN-JI TEMPLES IN KYÔTO, IN THE EDÔ PERIOD [1596~1868] (The Develop

July 24th, 2007 Comments off
Antariksa


Abstrak: Pada awal dari masa Edô [1596-1868], corak arsitektur dari elemen-elemen utama dan dekoratif pada bangunan utama (hondô, kyakuden, hojô) dari Vihara-Vihara (memorial cloisters) yang terdapat di kuil Daitoku-ji dan Myôshin-ji mengalami perubahan. Lebih jauh lagi, sebagai konsekwensinya, bangunan utama tersebut mengalami perkembangan dalam disain interiornya. Studi ini akan mencoba untuk menjelaskan perkembangan dan perubahan pada partisi pembatas, lantai, dan langit-langit, dari Vihara di kedua kuil tersebut, selama masa Edô . Sebagian besar dari langit-langit pada veranda bagian depan dari bangunan utama, yang dengan nama board ceiling (langit-langit yang tersusun dari papan kayu), muncul menjadi karakter corak arsitektur di akhir masa Edô.

Keywords: Edô Period, Partition Borders, Floor, and Ceiling


Antariksa is a Lecturer at Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineriing, Brawijaya University, Malang, East Java.


Antariksa, 2000, The Types of Plans and Interior Design at Memorial Cloisters of Daitoku-ji and Myoshin-ji Temples in Kyoto, in the Edo Period [1596~1868] (The Development and Changes of the Partition Borders, Floor and Ceiling, Jurnal TEKNISIA, Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan, Universitas Islam Indonesia, volume V Nomor 3 Desmber, hlm. 204-218. ISSN: 0853-8557.
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STUDY OF THE hondô (kyakuden, hôjô) OF RINZAI ZEN SECT BUDDHIST TEMPLES IN KYÔTO, IN THE EARLY EDO PERIOD (1596~1681) The Development and Changes in t

July 24th, 2007 Comments off
Antariksa*)


ABSTRACT
In the early part of the Edô period, from Keichô 1 (1596) to Enpô 9 (1681) the number of Rinzai zen sect tacchûs (memorial cloisters) in Kyôto increased. The sanctuary and veranda of several memorial cloisters were reformed.
On the basis of restoration, the purposes of this study will attempt to clarify the developments and changes in the typical plans of memorial cloisters, during the early part of the Edô period. From the restoration plans, it is possible to deduce the reason for change and trace the various development.
Previously, the other studies has been conducted, as seen at references is form of the resultant reconstruction plans of sanctuary and veranda in the mid-Edô period, from Genroku 6 (1693) to Kansei 9 (1797), and in the late Edô period, from Bunka 4 (1807) to Kaei 7 (1854). The interrelated both of these studies is to know the development and changes of type of plans of sanctuary and veranda during the Edô period (1596~1868).
The development and change of the sanctuary appeared from the early Edô period until the mid-Edô period. The reason for this is a need to accommodate the placement of carved statues of the cloisters founders. Based on the arrangement of verandas, it is evident thet the placement of a 1 ken veranda at the left or right sides of a building was related to fixed of entrance hall and temple kitchen. Further more, most of the saya no ma encompass remnents of the 1 ken veranda. The reason for the change was to redifine the veranda’s function as a resting area during religious services.


*) Ir. Antariksa, MEng., PhD., lecturer at Department of Architecture, faculty of Enggineering Brawijaya University.


Antariksa, 2001, Study of the hondô (kyakuden, hôjô) of Rinzai Zen Sect Buddhist Temples in Kyôto, in the Early Edo Period (1596~1681), -The Development and Change in the Typical Plans of the Sanctuary and Veranda-, Media Teknik, Fakultas Teknik Universitas Gadjah Mada, No. 1 Th. XXIII Edisi Februari, hlm. 3-14. ISSN: 0216-3012
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Study on the Architecture of Zen Buddhist Temples Bracket Complexes (kumimono)

July 24th, 2007 Comments off
Antariksa
Department of Architecture
Faculty of Engineering Brawijaya University
E-mail: antariksa@brawijaya.ac.id


Abstrak

Style baru yang masuk dari China, yang diberi nama Karayô (Chinese style) atau Zenshuyô (Zen style), mempunyai kedudukan yang sangat penting, tidak hanya pada masa Kamakura (1182~1333), akan tetapi, juga dalam keberhasilannya pada perkembangan arsitektur di Jepang pada waktu itu.
Sistem dari arsitektur bracket complex dari kuil-kuil sekte Zen ini, mempunyai keunikan tersendiri, dengan bentuk yang sangat sederhana tertata dibagian bawah atap. Skala dari bracket complex ini menjadi lebih kecil dan rumit dengan susunan yang berlipat-lipat ditata dalam sebuah space diletakkan di atas pilar-pilar.
Studi ini dimuali dengan mengumpulkan bahan-bahan yang didasarkan pada catatan-catatan sejarah, studi lapangan dan juga menggunakan beberapa referensi dari hasil penelitian. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan pembahasan mengenai beberapa tipe arsitektur bracket complex dari kuil-kuil sekte Zen.
Arsitektur bracket complex dari Zen style ini mempunyai perbedaan bila dibandingkan dengan Japanese style (Wayô), baik dari susunan penataan maupun detailnya. Di samping itu, beberapa kuil dari sekte Zen telah menggunakan kedua style tersebut.

Abstract

The new Chinese style called Karayô had the most important position, not only in the Kamakura period (1182~1333) but also in the succeeding development of Japanese architecture. At the beginning this style developed independently with the erection of many temple of the Zen sect.
The bracketing complex system is quite unique, with plain brackets under the eaves of the lower roof and very complex brackets in the space between the upper and the lower roof. Bracket complexes became smaller in scale and more crowed by duplication of the bracket complexes within the space supported by pillars.
This study discuss about the various types of bracket complexes architecture of the Zen Buddhist temples.


Antariksa, 2001, Study on The Architecture of Zen Buddhist Temples Bracket Complexes (kumimono), Jurnal TEKNOLOGI (Journal of Technology) Fakultas Teknik Universitas Indonesia, Edisi No. 1, tahun XV Maret, hlm. 85-95. ISSN: 0215-1685.
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